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Credit: Ken Garrett

Unfilled Vials

Vaccines that appear scientifically feasible often move through development slowly because they have little commercial potential and thus have trouble attracting serious investments. Just such a situation held back R&D on Ebola vaccines, one of which quickly proved its worth in a real-world trial held in Guinea last year. In the wake of that success, a growing number of researchers and public health advocates are lobbying to find new money and strategies to develop vaccines that could thwart both outbreak diseases like chikungunya and Marburg to endemic afflictions like paratyphoid fever and schistosomiasis. In response to a survey designed by Science, 50 vaccine experts ranked 10 vaccine-vulnerable diseases in order of development priority based on needs and the likelihood that they would work.